[29] Numerous fires were also caused by broken gas lines from houses shifting off their foundations or unsecured water heaters tumbling. [50] CSUN also received assistance from government agencies FEMA and OES to support the recovery effort and serve the needs of the local community. Farther north, the Newhall Pass interchange of Interstate 5 (the Golden State Freeway) and State Route 14 (the Antelope Valley Freeway) collapsed as it had 23 years earlier in the 1971 Sylmar earthquake, even though it had been rebuilt with minor improvements to the structural components. HAUK.SSON ET AI...: NORTIIRIDGE EARTHQUAKE SEQUENCE 12,337 of the Northridge rupture, show north-south shortening of 7-10 mmlyr, that may be accommodated by the San Cayetano, Red Mountain, and Oak Ridge faults [Donnellan et al., 1993]. Researchers at the Southern California Earthquake Center have determined that there is an 80 to 90 percent chance that a temblor of 7.0 or greater magnitude will strike Southern California before 2024. A ShakeMap is a near-real-time seismic network product that helps guide emergency response efforts within minutes of a strong earthquake. The main courtroom set was in shambles. The Northridge earthquake led to a number of legislative changes. [citation needed] Mark & Brian's morning show on KLOS was also affected. [36], Some archives of film and entertainment programming were also affected. Occurring 16.5 miles northwest of Los Angeles, the height of the Northridge quake activity was just 11.8 miles below the Earth's crust, making sitting ducks of one of the nation's largest populations. Ground deformations at this level of accelerations are expected to be highly nonlinear (Hardin NEQ 5 Northridge earthquake Figure 1. The airport was reopened in stages after the quake. Northridge earthquake injuries after Seligson and Shoaf 2003 . California State University-Northridge was grievously damaged. The peak ground velocity at the Rinaldi Receiving Station was 183 centimetres per second (4.1 mph; 6.6 km/h),[10] the fastest ever recorded. Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3, 2013) 5. The Northridge earthquake of January 17,1994 had a Richter magnitude of 6.4 and a maximum local Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI)of IX. [44] The 6.7 magnitude earthquake damaged several buildings as well as destroying all communications, such as telephone lines and causing computer systems to shut down. The 203 cases reported, of which three resulted in fatalities, constituted roughly 10 times the normal rate in the initial eight weeks. Next 104 results. Northridge Earthquake 20th Anniversary, January 17, 2014 Audio Description: https://www.dot.ca.gov/AD/Northridge Earthquake January 17, 1994 Text As in many previous earthquakes, geotechnical factors contributed significantly to the nature and severity of ground shaking. Northridge earthquake is estimated to be $1.3 to 2.2 billion in 1994 90% confidencebounds,equivalentto$1.8to2.9billionin2005 .Thisisequivalent to 3–4% of the estimated $50 billion in 1994 estimated direct capital losses and direct business interruption losses. A total of 58 … Afterward, anchors and reporters Stan Chambers and Hal Fishman of KTLA, Laura Diaz and Harold Greene of KABC, John Beard of KTTV, and Michael Tuck, Linda Alvarez and Tritia Toyota of KCBS were doing coverage throughout the day. The first study, conducted in 1994, focuses on the ways in which the 1993 Midwest floods affected the operations of businesses in Des Moines/Polk County Iowa; the second project, which was recently completed, uses a similar methodological approach to assess the impacts of the 1994 Northridge earthquake on businesses in Los Angeles and Santa Monica, CA. Subsequently, a team was sent out to film footage of the quake-damaged areas of the city. All 58 buildings on campus sustained significant damage, resulting in a $406 million recovery effort (equivalent to $700 million today). Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Northridge Earthquake of 1994: Ground Motions and Geotechnical Aspects", "Northridge 1994: 6.7 – 1km NNW of Reseda, CA", https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70208422, "Significant Earthquakes of the World 1994", "The Large Aftershocks of the Northridge Earthquake and their Relationship to Mainshock Slip and Fault Zone Complexity", "1994 Quake Still Fresh in Los Angeles Minds", "Show Event – NGDC Natural Hazard Images", "USGS Northridge Earthquake 10th Anniversary", "Southern California Earthquake Data Center". [48] The Fine Arts Building and the South Library experienced internal structural damage, resulting in the demolition and replacement of both buildings. Many campus buildings were heavily damaged and a parking structure collapsed. [46] In addition, the newly completed student parking structure C collapsed, and had to be demolished. [43] The 1994 Northridge earthquake greatly affected the CSUN campus, damaging much of its infrastructure, and causing multiple fires and explosions throughout the campus. The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP), a CGS program, manages more than 1,300 strong motion instruments statewide that contribute data to ShakeMap. The first and second episodes of the fifth season of Baywatch featured the earthquake, and how the lifeguards responded to it, professionally and personally. [24] The Northridge Fashion Center and California State University, Northridge also sustained very heavy damage – most notably the collapse of parking structures. The set, which is at ABC Television Center, suffered major damage, including partial structural collapse and water damage. In Valencia, the California Institute of the Arts experienced heavy damage, with classes relocated to a nearby Lockheed test facility for the remainder of 1994. [32] Most of the cases occurred immediately downwind of the landslides. Thousands of aftershocks devastated already weathered buildings, trapping many people below the rubble of parking structures and freeway overpasses. Global Positioning System measurements across the Ventura basin, 30 km northwest . It focuses on the 1994 Northridge Earthquake in the US and other recent disasters to examine vulnerability and post-disaster recovery strategies. [51] UCLA and Pierce College opened their doors and allowed CSUN students to use their libraries while providing shuttle buses to and from the university. The duo spoke to Los Angeles-area residents about their situation. All MTA bus lines operated service with detours and delays on the day of the quake. UCLA and other local universities were also shut down. 1175 November 1, 1997:1174–80 EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE ON CARDIAC DEATH The Northridge earthquake of 1994 served to prove the value of the Bermuda market at a time when it was facing negative attitudes from the Lloyd’s market. Earthquake Northridge California 1994 . (Courtesy CSUN University Archives) CSUN's Science 4 building (now … 114,039 buildings damaged. Differences in rates for 1993 compared with 1994 and for three-year periods before and after the earthquake (1991-1993 vs. 1994 -1996) were analyzed using a z-statistic. The long-term (1978 to 1993) background seismicity in the The mainshock was followed by an energetic aftershock sequence. The earthquake was one of the … The seismic event killed two CSUN students at the Northridge Meadows Complex along with 14 other residents. The Northridge earthquake is part of the temporal increase in earthquake activity in the Los Angeles area since 1970. Although those devices are important in compiling information for building structurally sound architecture, scientists are still not able to predict an earthquake. Housing Reconstruction After Two Major Earthquakes: The 1994 Northridge Earthquake in the United States and the 1999 Chi‐Chi Earthquake in Taiwan . At a magnitude of 6.7, the 1994 Northridge earthquake wasn’t unusual in terms of its size. Spatial and temporal distribution of slip for the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake, Bull. Two of the strongest earthquakes ever to hit California strike the desert area east of Los Angeles on June 28, 1992. Additionally, many businesses were forced to relocate or use temporary facilities in order to accommodate structural damage to their original locations or the difficulty accessing them. Therefore, caution should be taken in seismic design of diaphragm walls using ACI 318 code requirements. But when the Northridge earthquake hit one month later, Engelhardt’s theory proved right. 72 individuals lost their lives. As a result, the state legislature passed a law requiring all hospitals in California to ensure that their acute care units and emergency rooms would be in earthquake-resistant buildings by January 1, 2005. Figure 1. Similar measurements across the Los Angeles basin indicate shortening rates of 5-10 mmlyr [Feigl et al., 1993]. Damage was wide-spread: Sections of major freeways with unwrapped supports and unextended expansion joints collapsed; parking structures and office buildings with concrete framing (non-ductile) collapsed; and numerous apartment buildings suffered irreparable damage. Five days later, it was estimated that between 40,000 and 60,000 customers were still without public water service. January 17, 1994 - California Northridge Earthquake (DR-1008) January 17, 1994 ... California Northridge Earthquake (DR-1008) January 10, 1994 - California Northridge Earthquake (DR-1008) September 1, 1993 - Pickup truck being taken off an cargo airplane. The post-Northridge conference was modeled on this earlier effort and provided an opportunity to talk about short-term earthquake recovery efforts while highlight longer-term economic development programs and plans put into motion in 1993. 266 * 21 OCTOBER1994 1981 to 1993 that wereaboveM1.7, which is typical of the dispersed background seis-micity in the Los Angeles region. In the three years that followed Northridge, more than 681,000 residents applied for assistance from federal and state governments — making the earthquake both a devastating natural and economic disaster. Moderate damage to the built environment was widespread; severe damage included collapsed buildings and highway overpasses. As one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history, estimated at more than $40 billion, Northridge can be compared in terms of financial loss to 1992 Hurricane Andrew and the tragedy of Hurricane Katrina. Losses were estimated at $20 billion. As reviewed by Aki [1993], and more thoroughly by Beresnev and Wen [1996], scattered seismological evidence of sediment nonlinearity has emerged from more recent Unable to see in the dark that a freeway interchange just ahead had collapsed, the officer plunged 30 feet to his death. Many classes were moved to temporary structures. Most casualties and damage occurred in multi-story wood frame buildings (such as the three-story Northridge Meadows apartment building). Because of these revelations, building codes were revised. The damage While many businesses remained closed in the days following the quake, some infrastructure was not able to be rebuilt for months, even years later. 11,846 injured. [30] In the San Fernando Valley, several underground gas and water lines were severed, resulting in some streets experiencing simultaneous fires and floods. The pe… 30, No. Science 1994 ; 266 : 389 – 397 . motions produced by the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (Mw=6.7). The daily commute for many drivers in the weeks following was significantly lengthened, notably for those traveling between Santa Clarita and Los Angeles, and commuters on I-10 traveling to and from the Westside. The after-shockzoneaveraged 22eventsperyearfrom A a at E-10 E.X-20-30 B 30 20' 10' Distance(km) SCIENCE * VOL. Angel Stadium of Anaheim (then known as Anaheim Stadium) suffered some damage when the scoreboard fell into the seats. On the other side of the Santa Monica Mountains, which separate the valley from the rest of Los Angeles, entire sections of the Santa Monica Freeway collapsed, shutting down a key traffic artery linking Downtown with the city's west side. Timeline: The 1994 Northridge Earthquake A look at events of the Jan. 17, 1994, Northridge earthquake By Jason Kandel • Published January 16, 2014 • Updated on January 17, 2018 at 7:52 am Most were unable to meet this deadline and only managed to achieve compliance in 2008 or 2009.[34]. While a notable aftershock never came, many residents opted to stay in shelters or live with friends and family outside the area for a short time following.[53]. They suffered more damage from this earthquake than any other since the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. Strong ground motion was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nevada, about 220 miles (350 km) from the epicenter. The Northridge earthquake sequence consists of over 10,000 aftershocks (Hauksson et al., 1994); two of which had Mw6.0 estimates (Dreger, 1994; Thio and Kanamori, 1996). Universal Studios Hollywood shut down the Earthquake attraction, based on the 1974 motion picture blockbuster, Earthquake. The campus was unable to use any of its classrooms because of the damage the buildings sustained. [42] Metrolink leased equipment from Amtrak, San Francisco's Caltrain and Toronto, Canada's GO Transit to handle the sudden onslaught of passengers. Portions of a number of major roads and freeways, including Interstate 10 over La Cienega Boulevard, and the interchanges of Interstate 5 with California State Route 14, 118, and Interstate 210, were closed because of structural failure or collapse. Especially hard hit was the area between Santa Monica Canyon and Saint John's Hospital, a linear corridor that suffered a significant amount of property damage. Ironically, that interchange had collapsed 23 years earlier, during the Sylmar Earthquake of 1971. (1997). This respiratory disease is caused by inhaling airborne spores of the fungus. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, home to the 1932 and 1984 Olympics, suffered more than $44 million in damage. [citation needed]. The quake had a duration of approximately 10–20 seconds, and its peak ground acceleration of 1.82 g0 (17.8 m/s2)[7][8] was the highest ever instrumentally recorded in an urban area in North America. However, this earthquake also provided a rare opportunity for understanding and assessing the damage that can occur as a result of … The Los Angeles City Hall suffered no damage. [23], Sixteen people were killed as a result of the collapse of the Northridge Meadows apartment complex. Tendays before the event, a swarm of small earth-quakes (including … In response, the California Legislature created the California Earthquake Authority (CEA), which is a publicly managed but privately funded organization that offers minimal coverage. Structural damage was reported to more than 12,000 homes, businesses, schools and hospitals, leaving many people homeless for extended periods. In all, eight Southern California freeways were damaged, including the Highway 14 and Interstate 5 interchange. [18] The "official" death toll was placed at 57;[17] 33 people died immediately or within a few days from injuries sustained,[19] and many died from indirect causes, such as stress-induced cardiac events. Parade, scheduled to take place on January 17, was not held. [38][39] James E. Roberts was chief bridge engineer with Caltrans and was placed in charge of the seismic retrofit program for Caltrans until his death in 2006. Damage to the system resulted in water pressure dropping to zero in some areas; this predictably affected success in fighting subsequent fires. 700,000 claims filed with F.E.M.A. That is the view of Don Kramer, chairman and CEO of ILS Capital Management, who says that the London market had looked at the nascent Bermuda catastrophe market and regarded it as being one big loss away from disappearing. He likely did not realize until too late in the early morning darkness that the elevated roadway had collapsed. The third major earthquake to occur in the state in 23 years (after the 1971 San Fernando Valley and 1989 San Francisco–Oakland earthquakes), the 1992 Mojave (Garlock) Earthquake (SCEDC) 1993 Wheeler Ridge Earthquake (SCEDC) 1994 Northridge Earthquake (SCEDC) 1994 Northridge Earthquake (USGS) 1995 Ridgecrest Earthquakes (SCEDC) 1996 Coso Earthquake (SCEDC) 1997 Calico Earthquake (SCEDC) 1998 Coso Earthquakes (SCEDC) 1998 Crafton Hills (Redlands) Earthquake (SCEDC) A Quake!" However, the damage revealed that some structural specifications did not perform as intended. The recording venues Capitol Records and Warner Bros. Records were shut down at the time of the quake. Although casualties resulting from the Northridge quake were relatively minimal because it was early morning and on the Martin Luther King holiday, will such coincidences save lives next time? 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