[34] One of the 227 kg bombs hit the deck just forward of the starboard 15 cm twin turret next to the conning tower. [15] Scharnhorst was repaired in Wilhelmshaven, and while in dock, her boilers were overhauled. [17], Gneisenau, depicted in her 1942 configuration, To combat the German Panzerschiffe, the French built two small Dunkerque-class battleships in the early 1930s. [47], On 25 November 1943 Scharnhorst carried out a two-hour full-power trial achieving 29.6 knots (54.8 km/h; 34.1 mph) and it was noted that her draught had increased by over 0.5 metres (1.6 ft) from her 1940 trials where she had attained 31.14 knots (57.67 km/h; 35.84 mph). The Germans reached Wilhelmshaven on 27 November, and on the trip both battleships incurred significant damage from heavy seas and winds. This includes the Royal Navy site [The Second World War 1939-1945] Philip Baird Shearer 13:18, 20 Dec 2004 (UTC) The Kriegsmarine called them "Schlachtschiffe", not "Panzerschiffe". [66], On 4 April, Gneisenau, along with the icebreaker Castor and the old pre-dreadnought Schlesien departed Kiel for Gotenhafen. The strategic position following the damage to Scharnhorst was serious. The two ships were forced to put into port during the storm: Scharnhorst went to Gotenhafen while Gneisenau went to Kiel for repairs. The intention was to deploy the vessels to Norway to interdict Allied convoys to the Soviet Union. However, he did not realize that such "unsinkable" commerce raiders would provoke Great Britain more severely than 26,000-ton battlecruisers armed with 28.3 cm (11.1 inch) guns, which would be perceived as inferior to all the Royal Navy battleships and battlecruisers then in commission. The ice had been cleared by noon, permitting Scharnhorst's entrance to Wilhelmshaven. [48], Gneisenau and Prinz Eugen had continued their journey to Norway while Scharnhorst was immobilized. The ships were the first German cruiser … The British battlecruiser initially targeted Gneisenau, at a range of 11,800 m (12,900 yd). The ship was now fighting with only two-thirds of her main battery. One was mounted on the forward gun director, which was located on top of the bridge. Another 300 t (300 long tons; 330 short tons) tons of water flooded ten watertight spaces in four main compartments. Finally, by February 1934, Hitler acquiesced over the addition of the third turret. By 07:15, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau had used their superior speed to escape from the pursuing Renown. At 17:30, shells struck the forward 15 cm gun turrets and destroyed them both. [41][42], Scharnhorst did not make the voyage unscathed, however; at 15:31 she struck an air-dropped magnetic mine in the mouth of the Scheldt, abreast of the forward superfiring turret. The cruiser opened fire three minutes later, followed by Norfolk two minutes after. The 15 Halifaxes attacked Scharnhorst at her moorings. Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were the covering force for the assaults on Narvik and Trondheim; the two ships left Wilhelmshaven on the morning of 7 April. With only turret Caesar operational, all available men were sent to retrieve ammunition from the forward turrets to keep the last heavy guns supplied. 35 Squadron RAF and No. The Scharnhorst class were the first capital ships, alternatively referred to as battlecruisers or battleships, built for the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) after World War I.The class comprised two vessels: the lead ship Scharnhorst and Gneisenau.. Scharnhorst was launched first, [6] and so she is considered to be the lead ship by some sources; however, they are also referred to as the … At 13:15, Bey decided to return to base, and at 13:43, he dismissed the destroyers and instructed them to return to port. Temporary repairs allowed Scharnhorst to return to 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph). Certain elements not to scale. The British fleet had a significant advantage, however: they were able to decrypt German naval codes, and so they were aware of Bey's intentions. [27], The underwater side protection had numerous faults, however. [45], In early August 1942, Scharnhorst conducted exercises in cooperation with several U-boats. The German warships were protected by poor visibility, however, and the three ships safely reached port later that day. The class comprised two vessels: the lead ship Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. not a battleship. Scharnhorst then turned again and increased speed, in the hopes of escaping the cruisers and finding the convoy. [8] On 1 April 1942, Hoffmann, who had been promoted to Konteradmiral (Rear Admiral) and awarded the Knight's Cross, transferred command of the ship to KzS Friedrich Hüffmeier. 1940 German postcard showing the Gneisenau & Scharnhorst sinking the aircraft carrier HMS Glorious on 8 June 1940. The Germans intercepted British radio traffic that indicated the Royal Navy was at sea, which prompted Scharnhorst to make for Stavanger. As Acasta sank, one of the 4 torpedoes she had fired hit Scharnhorst at 19:39. [43] The engine room crews managed to restart the first turbine at 15:49, nearly twenty minutes after the mine explosion. [38], Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, with Admiral Hipper and four destroyers, departed again on 4 June. [46], Scharnhorst, Tirpitz, and nine destroyers embarked from Altafjord on an offensive on 6 September known as Operation Zitronella; the ships were tasked with bombarding the island of Spitzbergen. Before she sank, Acasta launched four torpedoes at Scharnhorst; the ship evaded three, though the fourth struck the starboard side near the rear gun turret. By 03:50 on 13 February, the ship had reached Helgoland. At 16:00 on 14 March, Scharnhorst dropped anchor in Bogen Bay outside Narvik. A 1000 lb bomb penetrated the armoured deck just ahead of the forward turret; shell splinters detonated the ammunition magazine, which did tremendous damage to the bow of the ship and burnt out "A" turret; 112 men were killed and another 21 were injured. Scharnhorst's forward turret was put out of action by severe flooding. Previous German battleships were classified as Linienschiffe (ships of the line),[lower-alpha 1] and Panzerschiffe (armoured ship). At around the time the last turbine was restarted, a single bomber dropped several bombs approximately 90 m (98 yd) off Scharnhorst's port side, which caused no damage. She was launched on 30 June 1936 and completed on 7 January 1939. There she joined Gneisenau, in preparation for Operation Berlin, a planned raid into the Atlantic Ocean designed to wreak havoc on the Allied shipping lanes. Scharnhorst was listing severely and very low in the water. The Scharnhorst class was the last traditional class of armored cruisers built by the Kaiserliche Marine.The class comprised two ships, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau.They were larger than the Roon-class cruisers that preceded them; the extra size was used primarily to increase the main armament of 21 cm (8.2 inch) guns from four to eight. [1], The ships carried a secondary battery of twelve 15 cm SK C/28 L/55 quick-firing guns. The British shadowed her, and relayed position reports to Admiral Fraser in Duke of York. [38] By 13:00, the ships had cleared the Strait of Dover; half an hour later, a flight of six Swordfish torpedo bombers, with Spitfire escort, attacked the Germans. Scharnhorst was launched first, and so she is considered to be the lead ship by some sources; however, they are also referred to as the Gneisenau class in some other sources, as Gneisenau was the first to be laid down and commissioned. [32], After repairs were completed in July, Scharnhorst went to La Pallice for trials on the 21st, where she easily steamed at 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). The Scharnhorst class was the last traditional class of armored cruisers built by the Kaiserliche Marine.The class comprised two ships, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau.They were larger than the Roon-class cruisers that preceded them; the extra size was used primarily to increase the main armament of 21 cm (8.2 inch) guns from four to eight. The other seven made it past the air defenses and attacked Scharnhorst, but only scored one hit, and the bomb failed to detonate. Four allied capital ships, the British Hood, Nelson, Rodney and the French Dunkerque followed in pursuit. Scharnhorst Survivors Land. Six 53.3 cm (21.0 in) above-water torpedo tubes, taken from the light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig, were installed in 1942. Each plant consisted of four diesel generators and eight turbo-generators. They were detected in the Skagerrak and the heavy units of the British Home Fleet deployed to cover the passage between Iceland and the Faroes. The rear conning tower was less well armoured, with sides and a roof that were only 100 mm (3.9 in) and 50 mm thick, respectively. Admiral Burnett, commanding the three cruisers Norfolk, Belfast, and Sheffield escorting Convoy JW 55B, placed his ships between the convoy and Scharnhorst's expected direction of attack. Her characteristics are very cruiser-like: top speed above 30 knots with a decent rudder shift time, plus a smaller-caliber main battery than other battleships that trades alpha damage and penetration for good rate of fire and muzzle … Jan 19, 2021 - Explore Bo Tomkie's board "Scharnhorst" on Pinterest. The original straight stem was replaced with a raised "Atlantic bow." In his instructions to Bey, Dönitz advised him to break off the engagement if presented with superior forces, but to remain aggressive. They were designed to displace 35,540 t (34,980 long tons; 39,180 short tons), which would have given the ships a draft of 9.1 m (30 ft). At 18:32 Scharnhorst (as the closer ship) opened fire with her main armament on Glorious, at a range of 26,000 m (28,000 yd). The collision alerted the British fleet as to where she was. The explosive shock caused serious damage; turret Bruno was jammed, as were the twin and single 15 cm mounts on the port side. Scharnhorst was launched first, and so she is considered to be the lead ship by some sources; however, they are also referred to as the Gneisenau class … The ship was built at the Kriegsmarinewerft dockyard in Wilhelmshaven; she was laid down on 15 June 1935 and launched a year and four months later on 3 October 1936. Since the model is optimized for 1/1800th scale, it is not ideal to print larger versions due to a lack of detail. The warships of the World War II era German Navy are among the most popular subject in naval history with an almost uncountable number of books devoted to them. Scharnhorst steamed to Gotenhafen in late October for a new rudder, the design of which was based on the lessons learned from the torpedoing of Prinz Eugen and Lützow earlier in the year. This deck was 20 mm (0.79 in) thick aft, increased to 50 mm in the central portion of the ship that contained the ammunition magazines and machinery spaces, and decreased down to 20 mm in the bow. [2] When the Soviet army approached in early 1945, the ship was towed out into the outer harbor and sunk as a block ship, on 23 March 1945. The British failed to penetrate the Luftwaffe fighter shield, and all six Swordfish were destroyed. In late 1942, Gneisenau was heavily damaged in an Allied air raid against Kiel. Two of the three turbines were jammed, and the third had to be turned off. The ships both had a beam of 30 m (98 ft). [8], The German navy considered the ships to be poor sea boats; they were bow-heavy when fully equipped and very "wet" as high as the bridge. The underwater survey vessel Sverdrup II, operated by the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, was used to scan the sea floor. Repairs were effected over the following six months. Scharnhorst shifted fire to Ardent while Gneisenau engaged Acasta; both ships sank their targets. [50] On 22 September, a pair of British X-craft mini-submarines attacked and seriously damaged Tirpitz,[51] which reduced the Arctic Task Force to Scharnhorst and her five escorting destroyers. Hoffmann served as the ship's captain until 1942. [3] Her standard crew numbered 56 officers and 1,613 enlisted men, augmented during the war to 60 officers and 1,780 men. Muzzle velocity for the AP shells was 890 meters per second (2,920 feet per second); the guns were expected to fire 300 rounds before enough wear had been incurred to warrant replacement. The ship reached Brest later that day and went into dry dock for repairs, which took 4 months. At maximum fuel load, the ships were expected to steam for 8,100 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,300 mi) at a cruising speed of 19 kn (35 km/h; 22 mph); however, Scharnhorst reached only 7,100 nmi (13,100 km; 8,200 mi) at 19 knots, while Gneisenau managed only 6,200 nmi (11,500 km; 7,100 mi) at that speed. The third also failed to detonate. . Plans to replace th… She was launched on 8 December 1936, and completed on 21 May 1938. During the repair process, the aircraft catapult that had been installed on the rear gun turret was removed. Centralising Class debate battlecruiser copied from Talk:German battlecruiser Scharnhorst Most of the references I have seen is that Scharnhorst was a battlecruiser. [39] At 17:26, the range had decreased by half, to around 25,000 metres (27,000 yd), and both German ships opened fire. Scharnhorst … The battleships of the Scharnhorst Class were the German response to the French battlecruisers Dunkerque and Strasbourg . The number of 2 cm guns was eventually increased to thirty-eight. Lütjens again forbade an attack, but he shadowed the convoy and directed U-boats to attack. Bey planned to attack the convoy at 10:00 on 26 December if the conditions were favorable for the attack. The Scharnhorst class battleships were the first warships of the Kriegsmarine in construction of which new armour plates made of hard Wotan (Wotan Hart) and soft Wotan (Wotan weich) steel were widely used. However, for a concise but authoritative summary of the design history and careers of the major surface ships it is difficult to beat a series of six volumes written by Gerhard Koop and illustrated by … Tirpitz Class Battleship. Only 36 men were rescued, out of a crew of 1,968. Battleship Scharnhorst-class Wehrmacht Kriegsmarine (German Navy 1935-1945) Scharnhorst The ships' vitals were well armoured against any caliber shell fired by battleships at the time at ranges where the shell would have to penetrate both the main belt and the sloping deck. [43], While docked in La Pallice on 24 July, Scharnhorst was attacked by several squadrons of Halifax bombers; five bombs—two high explosive 227 kg (500 lb) and three semi-AP 454 kg (1,001 lb)—found their mark. Shortly thereafter, Belfast fired star shells to illuminate the target, and Norfolk opened fire with her 20.3 cm (8 in) guns; in the span of 20 minutes, she hit Scharnhorst twice. [70], Coordinates: 72°16′N 28°41′E / 72.267°N 28.683°E / 72.267; 28.683, Scharnhorst-class battleship of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, encountered the British battlecruiser HMS, "How Germany's feared Scharnhorst ship was sunk in WWII", "The Sinking of the 'Scharnhorst', Wreck discovery", Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in December 1943, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_battleship_Scharnhorst&oldid=999505695, World War II shipwrecks in the Arctic Ocean, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 14:58. Four diesel generators and eight turbo-generators 39 ] by 07:15, Scharnhorst the! Admiral Fraser ordered his destroyers to refuel Admiral Hipper and the battleship Rodney and the French Dunkerque followed in.. Anti-Aircraft battery two destroyers battle of North Cape, the German ships to.! 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